All you need to know about Genes and Genetics.
What is a Gene?
A gene is the basic, physical and functional unit of heredity. It occupies a fixed position called as the locus in the chromosome. Genes achieve their effects by directing the synthesis of proteins. Gene is a series of RNA or DNA which codes the function of the molecule. Genes are made up of promoter regions and alternating regions of sequences such as exons (coding sequences) and introns (noncoding sequences). The production of a working protein consists of the transcription of a gene from DNA into RNA, the splicing together of exons and removal of introns. It also includes the translation of spliced RNA sequences into a chain of amino acids and the posttranslational modification of the protein molecule. Genes are contained within the cell nucleus in eukaryotes, i.e., animals, plants, and fungi. The mitochondria and the chloroplasts contain subsets of genes different from the genes found in the nucleus. In prokaryotes, i.e., bacteria, genes are provided in a single chromosome that is free-floating in the cell cytoplasm.
What is Genetics?
The science that deals with genes, its mutation, genetic variation and heredity in living organisms is called as Genetics. It is an essential field of biology and also a part of life sciences. Gregor Mendel and Augustinian Friar discovered the science of Genetics. Genetics works in combination with the environment of the organism and his experiences. Genetics nutrition is an excellent example of such study. Every organism inherits genes from their biological parents. These genes express specific traits of the organism. Genetics studies about the trait inheritance and molecular inheritance mechanisms of genes which are primary principles of genetics. Modern genetics has gone far beyond and studied inheritance, function, and behavior of genes. Genetic Diet Plan, Genetic Nutrition, etc. are some of the prevalent examples of modern genetics.
Why Are Genes called the core part of our body?
• Genes pass the necessary genetic information to the offspring:
Each cell contains two sets of chromosomes that come from the Father and the Mother. The male sperm and the female egg transport a single set of 23 chromosomes each, which includes 22 autosomes and an X or Y sex chromosome. If the offspring is a female, then it has inherited an X chromosome from each parent, and if it is a male, it has inherited an X chromosome from its mother and a Y chromosome from its father.
• Genes decide almost everything about a living being:
Genes interact with an individual’s environment and affect hundreds of internal and external factors, such as the color of the eyes, hair, specific behaviors of the parents or what diseases they may develop. Genes are the set of instructions that decide what the organism should look like, its survival, and how it behaves in its environment.
• Diseases and Treatments:
Understanding the genetic structure of particular human disease is one of the most important reasons for studying the human genome. Early diagnosis can result in improving the quality of life or even help in extending the lifespan of a diseased person. Current clinical trials on genetic disorders promise treatments that provide lifetime freedom from its symptoms. Couples get to know whether to risk the transmission of specific disease genes to their offspring by taking several diagnostic tests. DNA diet plans are also based on genetic nutrition testing.
• Genetic Enhancement:
Genetic enhancement has not yet come to the front, but research in this area will unfold many promises for the coming generations. It will bring an end to various incurable genetic diseases such as AIDS, Down syndrome, congenital deafness and congenital heart defects, etc.